## Definition of Conductivity

Electrolytic conductivity, abbreviated as EC, is a measurement made in which electrical charges on atomic or larger sized particles in a medium are moved under the influence of a potential difference. EC is a measure of concentration however it is non-specific for ion type. An ion is a charged particle present in the solution that contributes to the current flow. Ions are formed when a salt such as sodium chloride is dissolved in water to form particles having electrical charges. Sodium chloride for example, separates into Na+ and Cl¯. This is a simplified definition for the measurement is affected by many things such as the type of ionic compound(s) dissolved in the water; the ions mobility, the solution viscosity, temperature as well as concentration.

Electrical conductance, the ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current is the reciprocal of electrical resistance. “Conductance” and “resistance” depend on the geometrical dimensions of the substance being measured. Conductivity and resistivity are “normalized” terms that are used to denote a bulk intrinsic property of a substance. This is the measurement a standardized EC probe on a
conductivity or resistivity meter provides. Conductivity measurements can be used to provide additional industry specific measurements;
TDS, Salinity and USP compliant conductivity. Many of Hanna’s meters provide these measurements also.

## Units of Measurement

Electrical Resistivity ? (Greek rho), also called Specific Resistance (1cm cube) uses units of Ohm.cm. For example, ultrapure water is said to have a value of 18.16 Mohm.cm.at 25°C. Electrical Conductivity ? (Greek sigma and other symbols used also, is the reciprocal of resistivity and uses units of Siemens/cm (S/cm, mS/cm, ?S/cm, dS/m). For example, ultrapure water is said to have a conductivity of: .055?S/cm at 25°C. The IUPAC convension 1000 microSiemens/cm (?S/cm) = 1.0 milliSiemen/cm (mS/cm).
Note: Prior to 1971 mho/cm was the unit used for conductivity. This unit can still be found in some older literature.

## Conductivity versus Resistivity

Although conductivity and resistivity are reciprocal units that may be converted easily, convention uses resistivity for very low electrolyte concentrations or trace contaminants i.e. ultrapure water, and conductivity for expressing meaningful salt levels i.e. seawater; electroplating baths, acid concentrations. Electrode style and measurement techniques also contribute to success in making  conductivity or resistivity measurements reliably. Conductivity measurements can be used to provide useful industry specific  measurements such as TDS, Salinity and USP compliant conductivity and many of Hanna’s conductivity meters provide the computing
power to provide these measurements automatically.

## TDS

TDS (total dissolved solids), is a method used to determine solid content in a solution. To determine TDS, the solution whose volume is known is evaporated and the residue weighed. A conductivity measurement is commonly used to estimate TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) based on the assumption the solids are predominately ionic in nature and the relationship between the dissolved ions and conductivity is known.

TDS uses units of mg/L (ppm), or g/L. On some meters the user can input the TDS factor for the conversion.

One more basic units the factor is automatically set to 0.50 A typical

TDS factor for strong ionic solutions is 0.5, while for weak ionic solutions (e.g. fertilizers) is 0.7.
TDS = factor x EC??
For example: 100?S/cm conductivity is a TDS of 50ppm when the factor is 0.5.

## Conductivity/Resistivity/TDS of Commonly

Measured Substances

Definition of Conductivity Electrolytic conductivity, abbreviated as EC, is a measurement made in which electrical charges on atomic or larger sized particles in a medium are moved... read more »
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## Definition of Conductivity

Electrolytic conductivity, abbreviated as EC, is a measurement made in which electrical charges on atomic or larger sized particles in a medium are moved under the influence of a potential difference. EC is a measure of concentration however it is non-specific for ion type. An ion is a charged particle present in the solution that contributes to the current flow. Ions are formed when a salt such as sodium chloride is dissolved in water to form particles having electrical charges. Sodium chloride for example, separates into Na+ and Cl¯. This is a simplified definition for the measurement is affected by many things such as the type of ionic compound(s) dissolved in the water; the ions mobility, the solution viscosity, temperature as well as concentration.

Electrical conductance, the ability of a substance to conduct an electrical current is the reciprocal of electrical resistance. “Conductance” and “resistance” depend on the geometrical dimensions of the substance being measured. Conductivity and resistivity are “normalized” terms that are used to denote a bulk intrinsic property of a substance. This is the measurement a standardized EC probe on a
conductivity or resistivity meter provides. Conductivity measurements can be used to provide additional industry specific measurements;
TDS, Salinity and USP compliant conductivity. Many of Hanna’s meters provide these measurements also.

## Units of Measurement

Electrical Resistivity ? (Greek rho), also called Specific Resistance (1cm cube) uses units of Ohm.cm. For example, ultrapure water is said to have a value of 18.16 Mohm.cm.at 25°C. Electrical Conductivity ? (Greek sigma and other symbols used also, is the reciprocal of resistivity and uses units of Siemens/cm (S/cm, mS/cm, ?S/cm, dS/m). For example, ultrapure water is said to have a conductivity of: .055?S/cm at 25°C. The IUPAC convension 1000 microSiemens/cm (?S/cm) = 1.0 milliSiemen/cm (mS/cm).
Note: Prior to 1971 mho/cm was the unit used for conductivity. This unit can still be found in some older literature.

## Conductivity versus Resistivity

Although conductivity and resistivity are reciprocal units that may be converted easily, convention uses resistivity for very low electrolyte concentrations or trace contaminants i.e. ultrapure water, and conductivity for expressing meaningful salt levels i.e. seawater; electroplating baths, acid concentrations. Electrode style and measurement techniques also contribute to success in making  conductivity or resistivity measurements reliably. Conductivity measurements can be used to provide useful industry specific  measurements such as TDS, Salinity and USP compliant conductivity and many of Hanna’s conductivity meters provide the computing
power to provide these measurements automatically.

## TDS

TDS (total dissolved solids), is a method used to determine solid content in a solution. To determine TDS, the solution whose volume is known is evaporated and the residue weighed. A conductivity measurement is commonly used to estimate TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) based on the assumption the solids are predominately ionic in nature and the relationship between the dissolved ions and conductivity is known.

TDS uses units of mg/L (ppm), or g/L. On some meters the user can input the TDS factor for the conversion.

One more basic units the factor is automatically set to 0.50 A typical

TDS factor for strong ionic solutions is 0.5, while for weak ionic solutions (e.g. fertilizers) is 0.7.
TDS = factor x EC??
For example: 100?S/cm conductivity is a TDS of 50ppm when the factor is 0.5.

## Conductivity/Resistivity/TDS of Commonly

Measured Substances